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Review

Causes and consequences of low grade endotoxemia and inflammatory diseases

Trevor G. Glaros1,Samantha Chang1,Elizabeth A. Gilliam1,Urmila Maitra1,Hui Deng1,Liwu Li1,*
1
Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Inflammation, Department of Biological Science,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA
DOI: 10.2741/S405 Volume 5 Issue 2, pp.754-765
Published: 01 January 2013
*Corresponding Author(s):  
Liwu Li
E-mail:  
lwli@vt.edu
Abstract

Increasing clinical observations reveal that persistent low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of severe chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and aging-related neurological diseases. Intriguingly, low levels of circulating Gramnegative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) appear to be one of the key culprits in provoking a nonresolving low-grade inflammation. Adverse life styles, chronic infection, and aging can all contribute to the rise of circulating endotoxin levels and lead to low-grade endotoxemia. As a consequence, low-grade endotoxemia may skew host immune environment into a mild nonresolving pro-inflammatory state, which eventually leads to the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory diseases. This review aims to highlight the recent progress in the causes and consequences of low-grade endotoxemia, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms responsible.

Key words

Low Grade Inflammation, Endotoxemia, Chronic Diseases, Mechanisms, Review

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Trevor G. Glaros, Samantha Chang, Elizabeth A. Gilliam, Urmila Maitra, Hui Deng, Liwu Li. Causes and consequences of low grade endotoxemia and inflammatory diseases. Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar. 2013. 5(2); 754-765.