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Obstructive sleep apnea and heart disease: the biomarkers point of view
Nicola Vitulano1,*,Alessandro Di Marco Berardino2,Antonina Re2,Graziano Riccioni3,Francesco Perna1,Flaminio Mormile2,Salvatore Valente2,Fulvio Bellocci1
1
Department of Cardiology, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy
2
Department of Pneumology, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 3Cardiology Unit, San Camillo de Lellis Hospital, Manfredonia, Foggia, Italy
DOI: 10.2741/S392 Volume 5 Issue 2, pp.588-599
Published: 01 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical markers in biological fluids)
*Corresponding Author(s):  
Nicola Vitulano
E-mail:  
nicola.vitulano@gmail.com
Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent disorder. Important risk factors for this disease are represented by obesity, male gender, smoking, some endocrinological disturbances, alcohol intake, use of benzodiazepines, and craniofacial alterations. It is well known that OSAS is a frequent comorbidity as well as a relevant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially in patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), arrhythmias, and heart failure. Furthermore, therapy with continuous positive airway pressure devices (CPAP) has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of serious cardiovascular consequences. Interactions between OSAS and the cardiovascular system (CVS) can eventually result mainly in coronary atherosclerosis. These two conditions are connected by a complex biomarkers network. An extensive overview of these pathways could be helpful to better understand the causes of cardiovascular impairment in patients with OSAS.


Key words

Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Cardiovascular Disease, Biomarkers, Inflammation, Cytokines, Review

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Nicola Vitulano, Alessandro Di Marco Berardino, Antonina Re, Graziano Riccioni, Francesco Perna, Flaminio Mormile, Salvatore Valente, Fulvio Bellocci. Obstructive sleep apnea and heart disease: the biomarkers point of view. Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar. 2013. 5(2); 588-599.