Open Access
Protective cardiovascular and renal actions of vitamin D and estrogen
Pandu Gangula1,4,*,Yuan–Lin Dong3,Ayman Al-Hendy2,4,Gloria Richard-Davis2,4,Montgomery-Rice Valerie2,4,Georges Haddad5,Richard Millis5,Susanne B. Nicholas6,Diane Moseberry7
Departments of Physiology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville TN 37208, USA
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville TN 37208, USA
Center for Women’s Health Research, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA, and Department of Research, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
Talbert Medical Group/Health Care Partners, Long Beach CA 90802, USA
DOI: 10.2741/S362 Volume 5 Issue 1, pp.134-148
Published: 01 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent progress in reproductive biology)
*Corresponding Author(s):  
Pandu Gangula

Both basic science and clinical studies support the concept that vitamin D deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal diseases through its association with diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may provide a rationale for advocating adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium in all populations, thereby preventing many chronic diseases. This review explores the effect of vitamin D deficiency in the development of cardiovascular and renal diseases, and the role of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, it highlights the importance of vitamin D intake for the prevention of adverse long-term health consequences, and in ways to facilitate the management of cardiovascular disease. This is particularly true for African American and postmenopausal women, who are at added risk for cardiovascular disease. We suggest that the negative cardiovascular effects of low vitamin D in postmenopausal women could be improved by a combined treatment of vitamin D and sex steroids acting through endothelium-dependent and/or -independent mechanisms, resulting in the generation of nitric oxide and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).

Key words

Vitamin D, Sex hormones, Health disparity, Nitric oxide, CGRP, Heart disease, Renal disease, Review

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Pandu Gangula, Yuan–Lin Dong, Ayman Al-Hendy, Gloria Richard-Davis, Montgomery-Rice Valerie, Georges Haddad, Richard Millis, Susanne B. Nicholas, Diane Moseberry. Protective cardiovascular and renal actions of vitamin D and estrogen. Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar. 2013. 5(1); 134-148.