Open Access

What is the role of Achromobacter species in patients with cystic fibrosis?

Susanna Esposito1,*,Giovanna Pisi1,Valentina Fainardi1,Nicola Principi2
Paediatric Clinic, University Hospital, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy
Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milan, Italy
DOI: 10.52586/5054 Volume 26 Issue 12, pp.1613-1620
Submited: 07 August 2021 Revised: 16 September 2021
Accepted: 29 September 2021 Published: 30 December 2021
*Corresponding Author(s):  
Susanna Esposito
Copyright: © 2021 The author(s). Published by BRI. This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

In recent years, advances in diagnosis and treatment have significantly modified the short- and long-term prognosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, as in the past, the most important health problem that has significantly reduced the quality of life in CF patients is the progressive deterioration of lung structure and function. In recent years, Achromobacter species have emerged with increasing incidence in the respiratory secretions of CF subjects. The significance of this detection remains debated. In this review article, the characteristics of these pathogens, the importance of their presence in CF patients, and possible antibiotic treatment of treatments for colonization and infection are discussed. Literature analysis shows that Achromobacter species, mainly A. xylosoxidans, are pathogens with intrinsic characteristics that favour persistent lung colonization and several virulence factors and secretion systems that significantly interfere with respiratory cell survival. However, although it seems undebatable that Achromobacterspecies detection is a marker of CF severity, the role of these pathogens as a cause of lung structure and functional deterioration is not definitively established. Nonetheless, there is general agreement about the need for antibiotic therapy to eradicate these pathogens when they are detected in CF patients. Unfortunately, eradication is difficult, and no standard treatment is recommended by scientific societies. New possibilities are potentially offered by some recently developed drugs, such as cefiderocol, but further studies on the dosage, treatment duration and efficacy and safety of this new antibiotic in CF patients of different ages are urgently needed.

Key words

Achromobacter species; Cefiderocol; Cystic fibrosis; Multidrug-resistant bacteria; Pseudomonas aerug-inosa; Respiratory exacerbation

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Susanna Esposito, Giovanna Pisi, Valentina Fainardi, Nicola Principi. What is the role of Achromobacter species in patients with cystic fibrosis?. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark. 2021. 26(12); 1613-1620.