Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a childhood psychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and overactivity. Considerable research has focused on the neurobiological substrates of this disorder. Although the specific nature of the brain dysfunction remains elusive, progress has been made and several models of the underlying pathophysiology have been suggested. Research in the fields of neuropsychology, neuroimaging, neurochemistry, and molecular genetics, which points to a multifactorial etiology for the disorder, is reviewed. While several inconsistencies exist across studies, evidence supports dysfunction of fronto-striatal dopaminergic and noradrenergic circuits with resultant executive deficits in cognitive functioning.