Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant adult primary brain tumor and one of the most lethal types of all cancers. Currently, despite interventional therapy (e.g. multimodal treatments with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy), the overall prognosis for GBM patients remains poor. Thus, it is necessary to understand the molecular pathogenesis of GBM, which provides new insight into modern therapy. As a novel molecule, microRNA (miRNA) contributes to the pathogenesis of various types of tumor, including GBM. So far, miRNA has been shown to function in regulating protein-coding gene expression. This allows miRNAs to have direct function in regulation of various cellular events, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Great progress has been made in identifying novel tumor-related miRNAs and their potential target genes. In this review, we focus on the most current research in miRNAs and their role in GBM regulation. In addition, we summarize some miRNAs found as biomarkers in GBM and their role in treatment.