Open Access

The role of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of indirect acute lung injury

Rong Hu1,Hui Xu1,Hong Jiang1,*,Ying Zhang1,Yu Sun1
Department of Anesthetics, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, N.O. 639, Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai 200011, China
DOI: 10.2741/4176 Volume 18 Issue 4, pp.1244-1255
Published: 01 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular immunology and stem cell biology)
*Corresponding Author(s):  
Hong Jiang

Indirect acute lung injury (IALI) manifests as rapid-onset respiratory failure following secondary clinical events to the parenchyma or lung vasculature, such as hemorrhage shock, extra-pulmonary sepsis, trauma, ischemia-reperfusion, and burn injury. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the pivotal role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the innate immune system of lung diseases. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), one of the well characterized PRRs, recognizes not only the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, but also the endogenous ligands in IALI. In this review, we summarize a variety of reports concerning the role of TLR4 and IALI pathogenesis.

Key words

TLR4, IALI, LPS, Sepsis, Trauma Hemorrhage Shock, Ischemia-Reperfusion, Burn Injury, Review

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Rong Hu, Hui Xu, Hong Jiang, Ying Zhang, Yu Sun. The role of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of indirect acute lung injury. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark. 2013. 18(4); 1244-1255.