Regulation of angiogenesis by phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a bioactive phospholipid signaling mediator is emerging as an important regulator of endothelial cell functions and angiogenesis. Many studies have shown that LPA is an active player in regulating the processes of endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation, all essential in angiogenesis. Through modulating angiogenesis associated gene expression, LPA also promotes pathological angiogenesis. Intriguingly, the angiogenic signaling mechanisms mediated by LPA have been linked to specific G-protein coupled receptors and down stream MAPK including Erk1/2, p38 and JNK, protein kinase D (PKD-1), Rho kinase (ROCK), and the NF-kappa B signaling pathways. LPA regulates angiogenic responses via a complex signaling network, and LPA signaling is integrated and transduced to the nucleus to coordinate the transcription of different angiogenic genes. Investigation of these mechanisms will provide novel and valuable insights into the understanding of endothelial cell biology and angiogenic programs. This knowledge will facilitate designs for better therapies for the ischemic cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors.