Open Access
Review

Role of homeobox genes in the hypothalamic development and energy balance

Takao Kaji1,Katsunori Nonogaki1,*
1
Department of Lifestyle Medicine, Translational Research Center, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8574, Japan
DOI: 10.2741/4136 Volume 18 Issue 2, pp.740-747
Published: 01 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural network and energy homeostasis)
*Corresponding Author(s):  
Katsunori Nonogaki
E-mail:  
knonogakitky@umin.ac.jp
Abstract

Homeobox genes contribute to the regionalization, patterning and cell differentiation during embryogenesis and organ development. During mammalian embryonic development, homeobox genes, including orthopedia (Otp), a brain-specific homeobox transcription factor (Bsx) and a thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), are expressed in the hypothalamus. The genetic ablation of these genes indicated that Otp and TTF-1 are essential for the normal morphological development of the hypothalamus, including the arcuate nucleus (ARC), whereas Bsx is not required. In the adult stage, Bsx and TTF-1 continue to be expressed in the hypothalamus, including the ARC, and serve as transcription factors of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein. The expression of hypothalamic Bsx and TTF-1 can be altered by the feeding state and appetite regulatory hormones such as ghrelin and leptin. Although Bsx and TTF-1 are essential for normal feeding behavior in adult mice, they exert different effects on the expression of hypothalamic pro- opiomelanocortin (POMC) and body weight homeostasis. Thus, the hypothalamic homeobox genes may contribute to the dissociation of food intake and body weight via AgRP- POMC neurons.

Key words

homeobox gene, TTF-1, Bsx, Otp, hypothalamus, food intake, body weight, NPY, AgRP, POMC, Review

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Takao Kaji, Katsunori Nonogaki. Role of homeobox genes in the hypothalamic development and energy balance. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark. 2013. 18(2); 740-747.