Homocysteine induces inflammatory transcriptional signaling in monocytes
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Here, we studied transcriptional regulation in homocysteine (Hcy)- induced gene expression in monocytes (MC). We identified 11 Hcy-induced genes, 17 anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10-induced, 8 pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFN gamma)-induced and 8 proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha)-induced genes through literature search. Binding frequency of 36 transcription factors (TFs) implicated in inflammation and MC differentiation were analyzed within core promoter regions of identified genes, and classified into 3 classes based on the significant binding frequency to the promoter of Hcy-induced genes. Class 1 TFs exert high significant binding frequency in Hcy-induced genes. Class 2 and 3 TFs have low and no significant binding frequency, respectively. Class 1 TF binding occurrence in Hcyinduced genes is similar to that in IFN gamma -induced genes, but not that in TNF alpha -induced. We conclude that Hcy is a pro-inflammatory amino acid and induces inflammatory transcriptional signal pathways mediated by class 1 TF. We term class 1 TF as putative Hcy-responsive TFs.
Homocysteine, Monocyte Differentiation, Inflammation, Transcription Factor, Gene Expression