Open Access
Emerging metabolic targets in cancer therapy
Yuhua Zhao1,Hao Liu1,Adam I Riker1,Oystein Fodstad1,Susan P Ledoux1,Glenn L Wilson1,Ming Tan1
Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36604, USA
DOI: 10.2741/3826 Volume 16 Issue 5, pp.1844-1860
Published: 01 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone metastasis, the molecular, cellular and clinical prospects)

Cancer cells are different from normal cells in their metabolic properties. Normal cells mostly rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to produce energy. In contrast, cancer cells depend mostly on glycolysis, the aerobic breakdown of glucose into ATP. This altered energy dependency is known as the "Warburg effect" and is a hallmark of cancer cells. In recent years, investigating the metabolic changes within cancer cells has been a rapidly growing area. Emerging evidence shows that oncogenes that drive the cancer-promoting signals also drive the altered metabolism. Although the exact mechanisms underlying the Warburg effect are unclear, the existing evidence suggests that increased glycolysis plays an important role in support malignant behavior of cancer cells. A thorough understanding of the unique metabolism of cancer cells will help to design of more effective drugs targeting metabolic pathways, which will greatly impact the capacity to effectively treat cancer patients. Here we provide an overview of the current understanding of the Warburg effect upon tumor cell growth and survival, and discussion on the potential metabolic targets for cancer therapy.

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Yuhua Zhao, Hao Liu, Adam I Riker, Oystein Fodstad, Susan P Ledoux, Glenn L Wilson, Ming Tan. Emerging metabolic targets in cancer therapy. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark. 2011. 16(5); 1844-1860.