Open Access
Risk factors and metabolic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of uraemic cardiac disease
Sunil Bhandari1
Department of Renal Medicine, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust and Hull York Medical School, Kingston-upon-Hull, United Kingdom.
DOI: 10.2741/3794 Volume 16 Issue 4, pp.1364-1387
Published: 01 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac remodelling in uraemic heart disease)

Chronic kidney disease has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for incident heart failure. Despite advances in chronic heart failure treatment, the prognosis remains poor. The annual mortality from all cardiovascular causes in the end stage renal disease population is significantly higher than the general population, accounting for more than half of all deaths in this group. The mechanisms underlying the enhanced susceptibility to myocardial ischemia in chronic kidney disease are not well defined. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, although common in chronic kidney disease, do not exert the same impact as in the general population. The presence of "renal-specific" non-traditional risk factors including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, anaemia, proteinuria and changes in vitamin D metabolism (encompassing the complex interactions of calcium and phosphate metabolism, hyperparathyroidism and vascular calcification) play an important role in cardiovascular disease progression. An increased understanding of the array of metabolic changes/adaptations occurring in uraemic heart disease have allowed one to consider optimal management strategies and to develop new strategies for future management of uraemic heart disease.

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Sunil Bhandari. Risk factors and metabolic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of uraemic cardiac disease. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark. 2011. 16(4); 1364-1387.