Despite advances in surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, patients with cancer have a poor prognosis. Sustained aberrant tumor angiogenesis and metastasis is a major obstacle for effective cancer treatment. Just a few years ago, few would argue that one of the key success stories of the modern cancer medicine were the anti-angiogenic drugs targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway approved by FDA. This initial success inspired many researchers to search for new anti-angiogenic targets and drugs with the hope that one day, anti-angiogenic therapy might really become the panacea for cancer patients. Unfortunately, the limited clinical benefits achieved with anti-angiogenic drugs conflicts with the widely accepted notion that angiogenesis is a key event in tumor progression. Emerging data indicate that unique characteristics of the tumor vasculature within the tumor microenvironment may hold the key for success of anti-angiogenic therapy. In particular, the molecular and cellular alterations that sustain aberrant tumor angiogenesis in the face of angiogenic inhibitors represents novel targets for rationally designing and improving current anti-angiogenic strategies.