Open Access
G Protein and its signaling pathway in bone development and disease
Mengrui Wu1,Lianfu Deng1,Guochun Zhu1,Yi-Ping Li1
Life Science College, Zhejiang University, Hongzhou 310058, People's Republic of China
DOI: 10.2741/3656 Volume 15 Issue 3, pp.957-985
Published: 01 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal biology and diseases)

G protein signaling is comprised of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that detect ligands or sense cations, heterotrimeric G proteins, and downstream effectors and regulators. G protein signaling plays important roles in bone development, remodeling, and disease. In human cases, mutations of certain GPCRs and G proteins impair bone development and metabolism, resulting in bone diseases. This review focuses on the functions of G proteins and GPCRs in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, their signaling pathways, and their gene mutations in mouse models and human diseases. We have discussed the roles of all four types of G proteins (i.e. Gs, Gq/11, Gi/o, and G12/13) and assessed the roles of the GPCRs, such as type 1 Parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R), calcitonin receptor, cation sensing receptor (CaSR), relaxin family peptides, cannabinoid receptor, frizzleds, and proton sensing receptor in normal bone formation and remodeling. The roles of regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAP) in G-protein signaling pathways are also reviewed. Lastly, we give perspective for the research of G protein signaling in bone development and disease.

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Mengrui Wu, Lianfu Deng, Guochun Zhu, Yi-Ping Li. G Protein and its signaling pathway in bone development and disease. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark. 2010. 15(3); 957-985.