Open Access
Role of oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers in chronic heart failure
Ermanno Eleuteri1,Francesca Magno1,Isabella Gnemmi1,Marco Carbone1,Marilena Colombo1,Giampiero La Rocca1,Rita Anzalone1,Francesco Tarro Genta1,Giovanni Zummo1,Antonino Di Stefano1,Pantaleo Giannuzzi1
Cardiology Unit and Laboratory of Cytoimmunopathology, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Via per Revislate 13, Veruno (NO), Italy.
DOI: 10.2741/3375 Volume 14 Issue 6, pp.2230-2237
Published: 01 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progresses in heart failure diagnosis and treatment)

In this review, we present recent insights on chronic heart failure (CHF) and the potential role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukins, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitrosative stress in the progression of this disease process. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a consequence of aerobic metabolism. Under physiologic conditions, their unfavourable effect in causing oxidative damage is counteracted by antioxidants. An imbalance in favour of oxidants leads to oxidative stress, and contributes to myocyte apoptosis, direct negative inotropic effects, and reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Together, these effects lead to impaired vasodilatation of the coronary, pulmonary and peripheral vascular beds. In patients with moderate to severe forms of CHF, TNF-alpha leads to the formation of nitrotyrosine and consumption of nitric oxide by virtue of activation of myeloperoxidase. Further studies are required to better elucidate the complex interaction of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory activation in CHF. Such insights would likely lead to development of better strategies for the assessment of the disease severity by monitoring of new bio-humoral indices and better treatment approaches.

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Ermanno Eleuteri, Francesca Magno, Isabella Gnemmi, Marco Carbone, Marilena Colombo, Giampiero La Rocca, Rita Anzalone, Francesco Tarro Genta, Giovanni Zummo, Antonino Di Stefano, Pantaleo Giannuzzi. Role of oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers in chronic heart failure. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark. 2009. 14(6); 2230-2237.