Open Access
Article
Failure of beta-cell adaptation in type 2 diabetes: Lessons from animal models
Nurit Kaiser1,Gil Leibowitz1
1
Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Department of Medicine, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. nuritk@hadassah.org.il
DOI: 10.2741/3296 Volume 14 Issue 3, pp.1099-1115
Published: 01 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New therapeutic approaches for type 2 diabetes)
Abstract

The pancreatic beta-cell adapts to increased nutrient availability and insulin resistance by increasing its function and mass. These processes are orchestrated by signals derived from nutrient metabolism, hormones and cytokines. Their end-result is the regulation of insulin secretion and biosynthesis, and beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. This review focuses on the mechanisms involved in beta-cell nutrient sensing and adaptation and the potential causes of beta-cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate adequate beta-cell adaptation and the natural history of beta-cell failure is of utmost importance for the development of novel disease modifying treatments.

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Nurit Kaiser, Gil Leibowitz. Failure of beta-cell adaptation in type 2 diabetes: Lessons from animal models. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark. 2009. 14(3); 1099-1115.