Open Access
Superoxide, NO, peroxynitrite and PARP in circulatory shock and inflammation
Emanuela Esposito1,Salvatore Cuzzocrea1
Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples "Federico II", Via D. Montesano 49, Naples, Italy
DOI: 10.2741/3244 Volume 14 Issue 1, pp.263-296
Published: 01 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric oxide, superoxide and peroxynitrite in cardiovascular diseases)

Oxidative stress results from an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, an excess of oxidants and/or a depletion of antioxidants. A vast amount of circumstantial evidence implicates oxygen-derived free radicals (especially, superoxide and hydroxyl radical) and high energy oxidants (such as peroxynitrite) as mediators of tissue injury associated with circulatory shock and inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (e.g., superoxide, peroxynitrite, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide) are all potential reactants capable of initiating DNA single strand breakage, with subsequent activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP ribose) synthetase (PARS), leading to eventual severe energy depletion of the cells, and necrotic-type cell death. Moreover, Poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation is regulated by the synthesizing enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and the degrading enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). Here we review the roles of ROS, PARP-1 and PARG in circulatory shock and inflammation as well as the beneficial effect of the in vivo treatment with novel pharmacological tools (e.g. peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts, selective superoxide dismutase mimetics (SODm), PARP-1 and PARG inhibitors.

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Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea. Superoxide, NO, peroxynitrite and PARP in circulatory shock and inflammation. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark. 2009. 14(1); 263-296.