The primate endometrium is a complex heterogeneous tissue that requires proper maturation to achieve a hospitable environment for implantation. Endometrial differentiation and maturation is primarily controlled through the action of progesterone during the secretory phase. Many of the genes and gene networks that are involved in this process are likely to be induced or inhibited in a temporal, spatial, and cell-type specific context within the endometrium. We have used several approaches to address these latter issues in the rhesus monkey endometrium. The use of differential display with hormonally distinct endometrial cDNA populations prepared from artificially controlled menstrual cycles has allowed us to identify different P-dependent mRNA regulatory patterns during simulated secretory phases. In addition, we have coupled differential display with laser capture microdissection to further study region and cell-type specific changes in the primate endometrium.