Open Access
Article

Molecular mediators of polymicrobial sepsis

Sandra Wintersteller1,Jens Hahnhaussen2,Barbara Kofler1,Klaus Emmanuel2,*
1
Department of Pediatrics, Laura Bassi Centre of Expertise, THERAPEP, Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Paracelsus Medical University, A-5020 Salzburg, AUSTRIA
2
Department of Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, A-5020 Salzburg, AUSTRIA
DOI: 10.2741/E568 Volume 4 Issue 7, pp.2584-2604
Published: 01 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in molecular medicine)
*Corresponding Author(s):  
Klaus Emmanuel
E-mail:  
k.emmanuel@salk.at
Abstract

Sepsis is still a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Numerous biochemical indicators have been evaluated regarding their potential in predicting prognosis in sepsis. Generally, one must differentiate between indicators: those for preoperative risk of lethal sepsis, those for early prediction of lethal outcome and those for evaluating effectiveness of therapy. In the past, immunomodulatory therapies developed in various animal studies failed to be successful in humans. It has been proposed that present models have to be reevaluated, and new, clinically more relevant models should be evolved. This article will give a short overview on the most common animal models and a comprehensive overview on markers for sepsis in animal models and clinical studies. The focus will be on abdominal sepsis with a mortality rate up to 80% after major surgery. Two animal models designed to closely mimic the clinical course of intra-abdominal sepsis, will be compared. Furthermore, relevant clinical parameters for predicting prognosis before and after major visceral surgery are illustrated.

Key words

Sepsis, Biomarkers, LPS, CLP, CASP, Cytokine, Chemokine, Neuropeptide

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Sandra Wintersteller, Jens Hahnhaussen, Barbara Kofler, Klaus Emmanuel. Molecular mediators of polymicrobial sepsis. Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite. 2012. 4(7); 2584-2604.