Stroke is the second most common cause of death and consumes about 2-4% of total health-care costs worldwide. Although most studies have focused on neuroprotection during the past decades, current therapeutic options are still very limited. Recently scientists have intensified their work on neurorestorative therapies, including angiogenesis, which allow a far greater time window for improving neurological recovery. MicroRNAs have emerged as crucial players, regulating almost every cellular process investigated to date, and evidence of their role in the context of angiogenesis and stroke has been rapidly accumulating. The goal of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of microRNA-mediated regulation of angiogenesis and the implications for a novel molecular approach to enhance neurological recovery after stroke.