Oncology biomarkers for gynecologic malignancies
Current therapies efficiently treat most patients with gynecologic malignancies detected at an early stage. Thus, the identification of oncology biomarkers for screening and monitoring of occult tumors has been highly prioritized. Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) epitomizes oncologic biomarker, as the serum level of this hormone is elevated in virtually all cases of gestational trophoblastic diseases. On the other hand, despite the availability of various markers such as CA125, CA19.9, CA15.3, CA72-4, Inhibin, beta-hCG, AFP, CEA and many more biomarkers under investigation, fewer than 25% of all ovarian cancers are currently detected in stage I. Large efforts have been undertaken to further identify composite markers for gynecologic malignancies that may exhibit greater specificity when studied over time, as well as to develop risk models and screening algorithms aimed at improving the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic tests. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the biomarkers currently used in clinics for gynecologic malignancies, as well as an outlook of the most promising oncologic biomarkers currently under study.
Oncology Biomarkers, Gynecologic Malignancies, Early Detection, Disease Monitoring, CA125, hCG, HE4, Mesothelin, KLK, CEA, Review